Over fifty years ago China faced a cultural revolution, when Chairman Mao Zedongwith changed economy focus to heavy industry. A radical socialist campaign called the Great Leap Forward was designed to mobilize the country's vast rural peasantry. It included a massive series of plans designed to achieve rapid increases in China's industrial production. The main goal for China was to catch up with the United States and England. Before that time, China had been a mostly agrarian society. At the beginning the amount of crops and cotton was doubled. This initial success in 1958 led to ambitious goals for 1959 but the weather didn't cooperate. Fewer crops were harvested, rural officials overstated the amount of grain for fear of not meeting their quotas creating imbalance in the system. Result was Four Pests campaign in order to exterminate mosquitoes, flies, rats, and sparrows. Read more about the campaign here.